Lesson 8: Connected Speech – Linking

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Lesson 8: Linking

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En el inglés fluido, cuando una palabra termina en una consonante o sonido de consonante y la siguiente palabra comienza por vocal o sonido vocal, unimos los dos sonidos juntos sin pausa entre ellos.

An egg se convierte en anegg

Aquí hay algunos ejemplos más:

Pick it up – suena a pi – ki – tup

What is it – suena a wo – ti – zit

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Practica estas frases enlazando la parte subrayada:

He’s in the garden.
I used to believe in Father Christmas, but not any more.
I had to give up jogging.
He had it in his office.
Never again!
Fill it up
Put it away
Take a break
There is a lot of work
A cup of tea

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Intrusion

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Intrusión de /j/

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Practica estos ejemplos con la intrusión de /j/ en la parte subrayada:

I always have some breakfast.
When I go on holiday I just want to lie on the beach.
The end of the film was brilliant.
I ate the whole cake in one go.
It was too high up for me to reach.

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Cuando una palabra termina en /aɪ/, /ɪː/, /eɪ/ o /ɔɪ/, es decir, el sonido de la ‘i’, y, la siguiente palabra empieza en un sonido de vocal, podemos alisar el enlace añadiendo el sonido /j/.
‘I always’ se convierte en ‘Iyalways’.
Esto es un concepto del linking, pero hemos de tener cuidado, la boca naturalmente debe hacer este movimiento y no debemos forzar el sonido entre las vocales.

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highlight_text=”” after_text=”” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” sticky_display=”normal,sticky” class=”” id=”” content_align_medium=”” content_align_small=”” content_align=”center” size=”1″ font_size=”” animated_font_size=”” fusion_font_family_title_font=”” fusion_font_variant_title_font=”” line_height=”” letter_spacing=”” text_shadow=”no” text_shadow_vertical=”” text_shadow_horizontal=”” text_shadow_blur=”0″ text_shadow_color=”” margin_top_medium=”” margin_bottom_medium=”” margin_top_small=”” margin_bottom_small=”” margin_top=”” margin_bottom=”” margin_top_mobile=”” margin_bottom_mobile=”” text_color=”” animated_text_color=”” highlight_color=”” style_type=”default” sep_color=”” animation_type=”” animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_offset=””]

Intrusión de /w/

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Cuando una palabra termina en sonido /u:/ y la siguiente en sonido de vocal hay una intrusión de la /w/.
‘The shoe is’ se convierte en ‘the shoewis’
Recordamos que no es una /w/ completo así que no debemos forzarlo, sucede porque la boca se mueve de la /u:/ a una vocal y pasa por la /w/ de camino.

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Practica estos ejemplos con la intrusión de /w/ en la parte subrayada:

When do I have to be there?

I haven’t got a clue at all.

That glue is really strong.

I really can’t do it.

Don’t go out there!

It’s blue and white.

We could do a lesson tomorrow.

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fade=”no” background_parallax=”none” enable_mobile=”no” parallax_speed=”0.3″ background_blend_mode=”none” video_mp4=”” video_webm=”” video_ogv=”” video_url=”” video_aspect_ratio=”16:9″ video_loop=”yes” video_mute=”yes” video_preview_image=”” absolute=”off” absolute_devices=”small,medium,large” sticky=”off” sticky_devices=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” sticky_background_color=”” sticky_height=”” sticky_offset=”” sticky_transition_offset=”0″ scroll_offset=”0″ animation_type=”” animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_offset=”” filter_hue=”0″ filter_saturation=”100″ filter_brightness=”100″ filter_contrast=”100″ filter_invert=”0″ filter_sepia=”0″ filter_opacity=”100″ filter_blur=”0″ filter_hue_hover=”0″ filter_saturation_hover=”100″ filter_brightness_hover=”100″ filter_contrast_hover=”100″ filter_invert_hover=”0″ filter_sepia_hover=”0″ filter_opacity_hover=”100″ filter_blur_hover=”0″ admin_label=”Elision of 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gradient_end_position=”100″ gradient_type=”linear” radial_direction=”center center” linear_angle=”180″ background_color=”” background_image=”” background_image_id=”” background_position=”left top” background_repeat=”no-repeat” background_blend_mode=”none” animation_type=”” animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_offset=”” filter_type=”regular” filter_hue=”0″ filter_saturation=”100″ filter_brightness=”100″ filter_contrast=”100″ filter_invert=”0″ filter_sepia=”0″ filter_opacity=”100″ filter_blur=”0″ filter_hue_hover=”0″ filter_saturation_hover=”100″ filter_brightness_hover=”100″ filter_contrast_hover=”100″ filter_invert_hover=”0″ filter_sepia_hover=”0″ filter_opacity_hover=”100″ filter_blur_hover=”0″ last=”true” border_position=”all” first=”true” type=”1_1″][fusion_title title_type=”text” rotation_effect=”bounceIn” display_time=”1200″ highlight_effect=”circle” loop_animation=”off” highlight_width=”9″ highlight_top_margin=”0″ before_text=”” rotation_text=”” highlight_text=”” after_text=”” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” sticky_display=”normal,sticky” class=”” id=”” content_align_medium=”” content_align_small=”” content_align=”center” size=”1″ font_size=”” animated_font_size=”” fusion_font_family_title_font=”” fusion_font_variant_title_font=”” line_height=”” letter_spacing=”” text_shadow=”no” text_shadow_vertical=”” text_shadow_horizontal=”” text_shadow_blur=”0″ text_shadow_color=”” margin_top_medium=”” margin_bottom_medium=”” margin_top_small=”” margin_bottom_small=”” margin_top=”” margin_bottom=”” margin_top_mobile=”” margin_bottom_mobile=”” text_color=”” animated_text_color=”” highlight_color=”” style_type=”default” sep_color=”” animation_type=”” animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_offset=””]

Intrusión de /r/

[/fusion_title][fusion_text columns=”” column_min_width=”” column_spacing=”” rule_style=”default” rule_size=”” rule_color=”” content_alignment_medium=”” content_alignment_small=”” content_alignment=”” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” sticky_display=”normal,sticky” class=”” id=”” font_size=”” fusion_font_family_text_font=”” fusion_font_variant_text_font=”” line_height=”” letter_spacing=”” text_color=”” animation_type=”” animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_offset=””]

Cuando una palabra termina en /ɔ:/ como ‘law’ y la siguiente palabra empieza por una vocal, a menudo escucharás una /r/ para unir las dos vocales.

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Practica estos ejemplos con la intrusión de /r/ en la parte subrayada:

Can you draw a circle?

I saw a good film last night.

There is a flaw in the contract

My dog hurt his paw in the garden

Law and order is important.

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fade=”no” background_parallax=”none” enable_mobile=”no” parallax_speed=”0.3″ background_blend_mode=”none” video_mp4=”” video_webm=”” video_ogv=”” video_url=”” video_aspect_ratio=”16:9″ video_loop=”yes” video_mute=”yes” video_preview_image=”” absolute=”off” absolute_devices=”small,medium,large” sticky=”off” sticky_devices=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” sticky_background_color=”” sticky_height=”” sticky_offset=”” sticky_transition_offset=”0″ scroll_offset=”0″ animation_type=”” animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_offset=”” filter_hue=”0″ filter_saturation=”100″ filter_brightness=”100″ filter_contrast=”100″ filter_invert=”0″ filter_sepia=”0″ filter_opacity=”100″ filter_blur=”0″ filter_hue_hover=”0″ filter_saturation_hover=”100″ filter_brightness_hover=”100″ filter_contrast_hover=”100″ filter_invert_hover=”0″ filter_sepia_hover=”0″ filter_opacity_hover=”100″ filter_blur_hover=”0″ admin_label=”Elision of 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highlight_text=”” after_text=”” hide_on_mobile=”small-visibility,medium-visibility,large-visibility” sticky_display=”normal,sticky” class=”” id=”” content_align_medium=”” content_align_small=”” content_align=”center” size=”1″ font_size=”” animated_font_size=”” fusion_font_family_title_font=”” fusion_font_variant_title_font=”” line_height=”” letter_spacing=”” text_shadow=”no” text_shadow_vertical=”” text_shadow_horizontal=”” text_shadow_blur=”0″ text_shadow_color=”” margin_top_medium=”” margin_bottom_medium=”” margin_top_small=”” margin_bottom_small=”” margin_top=”” margin_bottom=”” margin_top_mobile=”” margin_bottom_mobile=”” text_color=”” animated_text_color=”” highlight_color=”” style_type=”default” sep_color=”” animation_type=”” animation_direction=”left” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_offset=””]

Cambio de longitud de vocales – ‘pre-fortis clipping’

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Sabemos que en inglés hay vocales largas /ɑ:/, /ɔ:/ etc. y cortas /ɒ/, /ʊ/ etc. y también cabe recordar que la /æ/ tiene un estatus casi único ya que, aunque esta en el grupo de las vocales cortas, es la más larga de ellas.

Vamos a ver ahora un fenómeno llamado ‘pre-fortis clipping’ o ‘alargamiento de las vocales’.
La longitud de las vocales está sujeto a la sonoridad de la consonante (o ausencia de la misma) que viene después. El término ‘fortis’ es equivalente a ‘sin voz’ (sorda) y ‘clipping’ es ‘acortar’ así que esta expresión significa que cuando una vocal acentuada y seguida por una consonante sorda (sin voz) en la misma sílaba, la longitud de dicho vocal se reduce considerablemente. Esto es muy notable en las vocales largas que pueden reducir su longitud a la mitad.

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Vocales largas:

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Seguidos por consonante sonora o pausa:

Cheese /tʃiːz/

Read /riːd/

Word /wɜːd/

Hard /hɑːd/

Born /bɔːn/

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Seguido por consonante sorda

Cheat /tʃiːt/

Reach /riːtʃ/

Work /wɜːk/

Heart /hɑːt/

Bought /bɔːt/

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Vocales cortas:

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Seguidos por consonante sonora o pausa

Man /mæn/

Bag /bæg/

Good /gʊd/

Run /rʌn/

Cod /kɒd/

Bin /bɪn/

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Seguido por consonante sorda

Mat /mæt/

Back /bæk/

Look /lʊk/

Rut /rʌt/

Cot /ˈkɒt/

Bit /bɪt/

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También hay pares de verbos y sustantivos que se diferencian únicamente por la sonoridad de la ultima consonante.

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Verbos (más largos):

Believe /bɪˈli:v/

Use /ju:z/

Prove /pru:v/

Excuse /eksˈkyu:z/

Advise /ədˈvaɪz/

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Sustantivos (más cortos):

Belief /bɪˈli:f/

Use /ju:s/

Proof /pru:f/

Excuse /eksˈkyu:s/

Advice /ədˈvaɪs/

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El cambio de la longitud de las vocales es muy importante debido al fenómeno llamado ‘desonoridad de consonantes finales’. Esto quiere decir que desactivamos la voz a las consonantes en posición final cuando les sigue una pausa así que la /b/ se convierte en su equivalente /p/ o la /d/ se convierte en la /d/. Entonces como distinguimos ‘hard’ /hɑːd/ de ‘heart’ /hɑːt/ si cambiamos la /d/ a /t/? Sencillamente por la longitud de la vocal. ‘Hard’ seguiría teniendo la vocal más larga aunque se pronuncia /t/ al final.

It’s very hard /t/

He has a big heart

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